The painting Babel, is the same dimensions as the slightly earlier painting, World Without Walls, and is more or less a companion piece, touching and inspired by similar themes. Babel, of course, refers to the Old Testament parable regarding the proliferation of languages and the confusion of mankind, but also in the context of these two paintings, themes regarding our mis-use of language for political and nefarious gains, using language to obscure the truth and confuse people instead of communicating clearly amongst ourselves. Of the two paintings, Babel is the darker, more cynical painting, while World Without Walls is the brighter, more hopeful painting. Even so, both paintings involve issues that have distinct darker and lighter sides. We would not need hope if there were no darkness. We would need no clarity if there were no confusion.